You can find x86 cpus in a large variety of differents packages.
There are at least 154 different known packages for x86 cpus...
These different packages belong to 9 different families :
These packages were more or less used, depending on period. At the beginning, there was only one package, the DIP package. Nowadays, only three kind of packages still exists : PGA, BGA and LGA.
But there was a time where 5 or 6 kind of packages could be found on the market !
DIP (Dual Inline Package) was the universal package for electronic components in 70's, and this why Intel released their 8086 in this package.
This kind of package has been replaced from 2nd generation of x86 cpus, because it was not large enough to have big cores and had not enough pins for a powerful cpu.
Exemple de boitier DIP : PDIP-40
X86 packages of this family : CDIP-16, PDIP-16, CDIP-18, PDIP-18, CDIP-20, PDIP-20, CDIP-22, PDIP-22, PDIP-24, CDIP-24, PDIP-28, CDIP-28, PDIP-32, CDIP-32, PDIP-40, CDIP-40, CDIP-48, PDIP-48, PDIP-64, CDIP-64
There is in fact two very different kind of LCC cpus. So different that we could consider that they are two differnet families :
- PLCC, for Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier, are square plastic packages with connectors on every edges.
- CLCC for Ceramic Leadless Chip Carrier, are square packages, but with completely flat gold connectors on the bottom.
This package has been massively used for 80186 and 80286, but was not re-used for 386 (again because of few possibilities for having many connections). But PLCC in particular, lived a long time, because of large 80186 variants which were developped till the late 90's for embedded applications. Nowadays, it has been replaced for these applications, by QFP or BGA packages.
Exemple de boitier LCC : PLCC-68
PGA package is the most popular x86 package since 80186. This package
Exemple de boitier PGA : CPGA-296
X86 packages of this family : CPGA-68, CPGA-88, PPGA-114, CPGA-114, CPGA-121, CPGA-128, CPGA-132, CPGA-142, CPGA-145, CPGA-168, CPGA-169, CPGA-179, PPGA-128, CQFP-196, CPGA-206, CPGA-237, CPGA-262, CPGA-273, CPGA-296, PPGA-296, TBGA-304, CPGA-320, CPGA-321, PPGA-370, FC-PGA-370, CPGA-370, FC-PGA2-370, CPGA-387, PPGA-387, FC-PGA-423, OPGA-462, CPGA-462, CPGA-463, µPGA-478, Mobile micro-FCPGA, PPGA-B495 (Micro-PGA2), µPGA-563, FC-PGA-603, µPGA-604 (FC-mPGA2), µPGA-604 (FC-mPGA4), µPGA-604 (FC-mPGA6), PPGA-B615 (Micro-PGA), µPGA-638, OPGA-721, OPGA-722, OPGA-754, µPGA-904, µPGA-905, µPGA-906, OPGA-938, OPGA-939, OPGA-940, rPGA946B, rPGA988A, rPGA988B, µPGA-1331
QFP (Quad Flat Package) is the leading package for electronics components nowadays. Many components that have between 50 and 200 connections can be found in this format which has many variants :
- PQFP (Plastic Quad Flat Package)
- SQFP (Small Quad Flat Package)
- TQFP (Thin Quad Flat Package)
As for x86, QFP was first used for some 8086 clones (from OKI or Nec), but it is only since 80186 that it was very used.
Then, it was massively used for mobile 386 and 486, before being replaced by TCP and then BGA on next generation cpus, because of its connections limits (or more likely because of the space used for a more than 200 pins QFP cpu).
Exemple de boitier QFP : QFP-80 (Rectangular)
X86 packages of this family : TSOP-32, SSOP-40, TSOP-40, QFP-44, TSOP-48, QFP-52, QFP-56, TSOP-56, PQFP-64, CQFP-68, PQFP-68, TQFP-80, QFP-80 (Square), QFP-80 (Rectangular), SQFP-80, SQFP-100, QFP-100 (Rectangular), PQFP-100, CQFP-100, TQFP-100, PQFP-132, CQFP-132, QFP-144, TQFP-144, QFP-160, PQFP-160, CQFP-164, QFP-168, TQFP-176, QFP-184, PQFP-196, SQFP-208, QFP-216, C4-CQFP
BGA is the new package wich appeared for mobile cpus. It has almost same characteristics as PGA, but with metallic balls instead of pins, which are directly soldered on the motherboard. This way, there are no need for putting a socket on the board (for costs reductions), but it kills all upgrade possibilities.
Every mobile cpus from Intel, Via and Transmeta can be found in this package. Intel mobile cpus can be also found in PGA in addition to BGA. As for AMD cpus, BGA package is strangely not used and every AMD mobile cpus are in PGA.
Please note, that there are many adaptors based on BGA cpus, sometimes officially (like MMC-1 and MMC-2, defined by Intel), but most of time not, like many BGA to PGA adapters for PII/PIII/Celeron which can be found in China.
Exemple de boitier BGA : BGA-352
X86 packages of this family : HSBGA, HSBGA, BGA-196, CBGA-255, BGA-256, BGA-292, BGA-320, nanoBGA, OBGA-349, BGA-352, HL-PBGA-352, CBGA-360, EBGA-368, BGD-368, EBGA (Enhanced BGA), BGA-387, PBGA-388, FCBGA-393, BGU-396, FC-OBGA-399, nanoBGA2, BGA413 (FT1), BGD-432, FC-BGA437 (µFC-BGA8), FCBGA-441 (µFC-BGA8), µBGA-452, µBGA-460, CBGA-474, FCBGA-479 (Micro-FCBGA), BGU-481, PBGA-B495 (BGA2), FCBGA-518, BGA-540, FC-BGA559 (µFC-BGA8), µBGA-564, UTFCBGA592, OBGA-592, BGA-609, PBGA-B615 (BGA-615), BGA-617, µBGA-652, FCBGA-663, µBGA-676, BGA-676, BGA-686, BGA-689, PBGA-720, FC-MB4760, BGA769 (FT3b), BGA769 (FT3), OBGA-783, ASB1, BGA827 (FP2), BGA906 (FP3), FCBGA-951, µFC-BGA956, FCBGA-1023, FC-MB5T1064, FCBGA-1090, FCBGA-1168, FCBGA-1170, FCBGA-1224, FCBGA-1283, FCBGA-1284, FCBGA-1288, FCBGA-1296 (BGA Type 3), FCBGA-1310, FCBGA-1356, FCBGA-1364, UTFCBGA1380, FCBGA-1440, FCBGA-1466, FCBGA-1515, FCBGA-1528, FCBGA-1667, FCBGA-2270, BGA-5903
TCP, which means Tape Carrier Package, is a really thin film like package, countaining core and connections of the cpu. It has to be soldered directly on a PCB and was only used for laptop computers.
Only Pentium and Pentium MMX can be found in this package.
This kind of package had a really short lifetime and has been soon replaced by BGA package for mobile cpus.
Please note, that it was used on many adapters (see below) in order to use them on laptop motherboards.
Exemple de boitier TCP : TCP-320
X86 packages of this family : TCP-320
Exemple de boitier LGA : LGA-775
X86 packages of this family : LGA-771 (FC-LGA6), LGA-771 (FC-LGA8), LGA-775, LGA-1366, LGA-1150, LGA-1151, LGA-1155, LGA-1156, LGA-1160, LGA-1207, LGA-1248, LGA-1356-3, LGA-1356, LGA-1567, LGA-1944, LGA-2011, LGA-2011-1, LGA-2011-3, LGA-2066, LGA-3647, LGA-4094
Exemple de boitier Cartouche : SEC-242 (SECC-1)
Exemple de boitier Adaptateur : MMC-2